Then resize the plot preview pane and ggsave() again. And again. You’ll get three very different graphics as a result. Your font sizes are likely to be different from what you expect, if you drag those saved graphics into an MS Word or PowerPoint document, since the graphic will have to resize to fit the container (page, slide, or content area).
The solution is to be explicit about what your intended end-use is. I wrote a utility function to save a given graphic with proper dimensions and resolution for a number of use cases: for use in MS Word (U.S. Letter) documents at half- and full-page sizes, both portrait and landscape; and in both standard and widescreen slide formats. The code uses a default sent of dimensions and resolutions, but you can provide your own data.frame, if needed. U.S. users will recognize 8.5-2 as letter-width less 2 inches for standard 1 inch margins and 11-2 as letter-height less the same 2 inches for margins. Half page height is then (11-2)/2.
Now, your “10pt” axis labels will actually be 10pt when you place your graphics. Always use your graphics at 100% scale, otherwise all bets are off.
“Political rightness, if we can imagine such a thing, might begin with allowing all human beings to exist equally in dignity, in rights, and also with the language they feel is adequate to their experience of the world around them.” ~Mícheál McCann, Irish poet
I often see a similar set of issues related to proper citation… some of them are quite understandable, while others perplex me in their consistency. When I cite myself, below, it’s not ego; it’s to demonstrate how I would typically expect to see a citation or reference appear. And the references are fictional.
Every in-text idea that isn’t yours must be cited. Failure to do so is theft of intellectual property, typically known as plagiarism.
Every in-text idea that’s taken directly from source material must be “wrapped in quotation marks and cited” (Doane, 2023).
If a quotation comes from a paged document (PDF, book, etc.), then “the quoted in-text citation should include a page number” (Doane, 2023 p.45).
In APA style, the punctuation for the sentence being cited goes AFTER the citation (Doane, 2023).
not punctuated like this. (Doane, 2023).
The label used in the in-text citation (Doane, 2023) must match the beginning of the alphabetized entry in the References section.
Doane, W. E. J. (2023). How to Cite to Ensure a Chain of Evidence to Support Your Claims. Penguin Press. (nb: this is fictional)
Every in-text citation must lead directly to an entry in your References section.
Your References Section
Every entry in your References section must match an in-text citation.
The References section must be arranged in alphabetical order by first author’s last name (or source, if no author).
Multiple references from the same author in the same year may need an added letter designation: (Doane, 2023a) for example, with the letter also added to the reference entries to help your reader disambiguate.
Doane, W. E. J. (2023a). How to Cite to Ensure a Chain of Evidence to Support Your Claims. Penguin Press. (nb: this is fictional)
Doane, W. E. J. (2023b). More Tips on How to Cite. Saratoga Press. (nb: this is fictional)
Institutional authors should be spelled out (unless it’s a very common abbreviation: IBM, NASA, etc.).
Never list institutional authors as if they were first and last names:
BAD: “Machines, I.B.”
GOOD: “IBM” or “International Business Machines”
Check how to cite an organization as the author in your citation manager of choice.
URLs should be minimal and reachable by your reader. Test their reachability using a different web browser.
Any referenced URLs should be reachable by a non-privileged user—someone who isn’t logged in. So, prefer links to sources that aren’t behind paywalls or behind required logins.
Beware of loooooooong URLs that seem to contain session IDs or other metadata that was specific to YOUR session visiting the page. Try to trim your URLs to the essentials, then test that they’re reachable. For example, these are the same URL… but the first has cruft specific to my visit to the Amazon website.
Prefer authoritative sources over secondary sources. If you’re referencing a NIST publication, link to the NIST.gov website address for it, not to a university class blog file or to a web article that links to it.
The purpose of citing is to draw a map for your reader from the material in the body of your document, to a reference, to the original source.
If you claim that the U.S. National Debt is only $31 dollars, then I need to know where you got that information, so that I can fact check you and point out that you left off “trillion”. (See https://www.usdebtclock.org/)
Your job as a writer is to make it as easy as possible for your reader to believe and be persuaded by your writing.
As such, accurate attribution and guiding your reader to the source material you rely upon for your claims is vital to the writing process.
As an analogy to Web technology, the concept of citations are the pre-electronic version of web links: the text in the body of your document links to a reference which in turn links to a source document. Each step in that chain of evidence needs to be immediately apparent and easy to follow.
I’m excited to be speaking & hosting a workshop (November 30) at this year’s R Gov Conference (@rstatsai) along with many others on December 1-2! Join us in-person or virtually online for a fun filled event! Get your ticket now at rstats.ai/gov #rstatsgov | #rstats
I and a dear friend experienced David Strathairn’s performance of this one man show about another man at the Shakespeare Theatre Company in Washington DC, October 9, 2021. It was touching, deep, and disturbing. It speaks as much to our time as to our history.
PSA: You should absolutely setup or update your iOS Medical ID information and select your emergency contacts right this very minute.
This feature, found in the Health app on your iPhone or iPad, makes your medical information—medications, allergies, organ donor status— available to first responders and allows calls to your emergency contacts even when your device is locked.
I had the pleasure of seeing this performed in 1997 with dear friends from my days at Hampshire College. It was performed by Ossie Davis, Susan Sarandon, Mandy Patinkin, Pete Seeger and others. Quite a thought provoking night.
Richard Hamming was a 20th century mathematician who contributed greatly to our understanding of information and information encodings. In this talk he shares his thoughts on how to be good at what you do. In short: work on the right problem, at the right time, and using the right methods. Were it so easy!
Here’s an interesting throwback to my early days of computing. I learned about computing and programming on a Times-Sinclair 1000 back in 1982. For a “reasonable” cost, it was a keyboard and computer all-in-one that you plugged into your TV set (for display) and audio cassette player (for data storage).
This is a nice intro to the new Raspberry Pi 400 all-in-one computer… This is 1,000 generations follow-on from the Times-Sinclair 1000. And yet, it’s so very similar: all-in-one, connect to your monitor, etc. Also, it’s the same current dollars cost: The Sinclair cost $99 in 1982 dollars and the PI 400 costs $100 in 2020 dollars for a kit that includes a hefty beginner’s guide, power supply, mouse, and video cable.
These kinds of devices allow for discovery and tinkering in a way that tightly controlled ecosystems such as the iPhone, iPad, and even Android platforms generally do not. Here’s hoping such systems inspire more generations to explore the possibilities of computing.
“The only freedom which deserves the name, is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or impede their efforts to obtain it.”
“…doing as we like, subject to such consequences as may follow: without impediment from our fellow-creatures, so long as what we do does not harm them, even though they should think our conduct foolish, perverse, or wrong.”
There are plentiful examples of spreadsheet applications leading analysts astray. Believe all the scary stories. Spreadsheets can silently damage your data, converting numbers to dates or dropping leading zeros from what should be fixed-length identifier (where did the U.S. Zip Code 01002 go?).